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Topic(s) of Interest
Definition: having a clear perception of your personality, including strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, motivation, and emotions.
- Who was I?
- Who am I?
- Who will I be?
I want to learn how to reinvent myself. I struggled with many medical setbacks this semester, and I need to find a way to emerge “Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger” (Daft Punk) and more resilient. I lost sight of who I was, I want to find out who I am again.
Definition: the confident and forceful expression or promotion of oneself, one’s views, or one’s desires.
- What’s holding me back?
- What am I afraid of?
- What do I want?
Once I know who I am, I need to discover how to express myself. I need to learn how to take a new approach at life, and need to take actions to overcome my obstacles and find ways to succeed.
Remember—I have a Bachelor of Science in Theatre, Communication, and Youth Studies.
Therefore, the fact that this is a photo of a stage prop should resonate loudly. This prop portrays a great level of respect between a stage manager, actor(s), and director. The stage manager stores and keeps the prop safe at all times when not in use during a scene. This includes during a rehearsal, and during dark times. This is usually done by means of a lock box or gun cabinet, depending on weapons used and facilities available.
Next, the transfer of trust occurs when the prop weapon is handed from the stage manager or weapon master to the actor that will be handling the prop. It is a prop; it is a tool for performance, and must be treated with due respect. That hand-off entails that the gun is in safe working order, if any blank ammunition is loaded, the assurance that the blanks are proper minimum strength for the necessary use, and that the prop master/stage manager will be available immediately upon completion of the scene to retrieve the weapon to ensure it’s return to safe keeping.
Theatre is a work space. It is a place for enjoyment by the audience, but it by means of hard work and dedication by professionals who have trained and prepared for an emotionally trying presentation. Using a weapon—especially a firearm—on stage delivers powerful scenes with deep emotional impact. Does the audience see the thread of trust the exists from the unlocking of the lock box, to the hand-off to the actor, the return to the weapon master, and the locking of storage again? They’re not supposed to, but it is the ultimate trust endowed on any team.
Please visit Weapons of Choice for an example of the wide selection of props used to represent a long history of weapons use on stage.
For my Youth & Spirituality class in my undegrad, I went to my first big football game. I never went to a game in high school, and by this time in my college career, I should go to a game. It just so happened the Gophers were playing the NDSU Bison. Funny thing, cuz Fargo is my home town. They usually wouldn’t play because they are in different conferences, but this was a special game.
I compared the energy of the football stadium to that of a crowd attending a concert like Linkin Park. How is that any different that the praise held in a temple? To some, it’s not.
My graduate degree is filled with references of Jedi as a religion. I am, of course, referring to Star Wars by George Lucas. My argument is that if L. Ron Hubbard could write a novel to spark the creation of Scientology, then George could create a universe that guides a new generation of Earthlings into the future with new ideas, goals, aspirations, and morals.
Observing the world come to terms with the passing of Chester Bennington has been humbling. I wish I could take back some things I’ve said and done recently, but I can only change what I do in the future.
And so can you.
Where does youth work happen? At school? At the clinic? In juvenile hall, or the emergency?
What about at home? Sometimes, someone needs to sit down with the parent and explain parenting to them. It sounds awkward, but parents don’t always know best.
I’m not saying I do, either. I don’t have kids, but I know you are having an emotional response firing your action because these kids are your offspring.
I think what we learned was how to go through and identify the community components and players, help them discovery their potential, and help them build their dreams.
Riviera Theory of Youth Development:
Aims, Strategies, Ethos, Activities and Outcomes
Written November 14, 2016 for YOST 5956 Organizational Approaches to Youth Development at the University of Minnesota, in pursuit of a Master of Education in Youth Development Leadership.
Youth development is the process of teaching the process of learning to growing youth. Parents bring children into a world, and hope the child is raised according to their traditions, and carry on their morality. However, youth will discover at some point that they have agency over their development path. When this realization creates conflicts between the world prepared for them, and their discovered beliefs, the skills instilled in the youth at a younger age may dictate their success or failure, and influence the resilience and ability to adapt. The people who have a role in the young person’s development, and the environment that relationship is exercised in, have significant impacts on the outcomes. Focus needs to remain on the youth, and helping them identify their own needs and concerns as they grow. Building resilience, adaptation, and communication skills will ensure positive youth development. There are situations that require specialized development plans, such as youth who live in poverty, working with those with physical or mental challenges, and supporting youth who have experienced traumatic events. Developing competence in a variety of life skills will result in efficient transition to adulthood.
Keywords: youth, development, theory
Somehow, over the years, I learned a great deal of inner strength and resilience. I want to capture that, and learn how to teach it to others. Especially to youth, and to those who can teach it to youth. That is why I’m in Youth Development Leadership.
Children are born into a world defined by their parents and community to prepare them for who they may become. They begin to mimic their parents at a very young age to learn language and social skills. Transitions occur as they transform from child to adult; sometimes dictated by age or development, and at others, by systems like education and healthcare. Traditional milestones include graduating high school, leaving their parents’ home, developing a personal relationship, and forming a career (Gorter, Stewart, & Woodbury-Smith, 2011).
At some point, youth will experience a realization that they are in control of their development and path in life. Conflicts are created by a collision of the preparation of parents and community, and the realization of the youth’s own true path. Kenneth Keniston defined this “tension between self and society” (as cited in Arnett, 2000) as a period where the young person experiments between adolescence and adulthood. Regardless of education, youth find it necessary to reexamine beliefs, and develop those that align with their personal experiences (Arnett, 2000).
This “coming of age” is often shrouded in mystery during the upper teens and young twenties. An individual may not see themselves as an adolescent any longer, but they may not have taken on the identity of an adult, either. Society has no name for a person in this age range (Arnett, 2000). An adult is legally 18 years old or older, but you must be 21 to drink alcohol. As you will see, age is not a definitive definition of one’s development stage.
Instilling a process of learning and understanding is a fundamental function of youth development. Teaching youth how to identify, resolve, and adapt to conflicts is the core motivation for creating a positive youth experience. Despite significant adversity, individuals who have attained resilience are able to effectively adapt to the world (Burt & Paysnick, 2012).
Two examples of youth engagement that affect this learning process are the authority-youth relationship, and the environment this relationship is exercised in. Olson and Goddard (2015) explain that human behavior is affected by interactions between the individual, their immediate environment, and the social and cultural contexts around them. Protective factors separate a young person from risks, while exposure to risk factors result in more negative outcomes. Based on experiences in family, work, school, and play, the youth’s perspective defines the effectiveness of the youth development efforts placed upon them. The influence of personal and environmental factors on each other, and their impact on development, has been the new focus of research, rather than how these factors influence the youth independently (Gorter, Stewart, & Woodbury-Smith, 2011).
When discussing youth development, I prefer to think of efficiency rather than success. Are the inputs and resources put into the effort utilized to their full potential? I find it difficult to say that a young person has failed in transition to adulthood. Rather, they were not able to fully utilize the resources presented to them. Discovering the impact of these influences is not immediate, and may not be apparent for many years after becoming an adult.
Definition of Theory
Before you can develop a theory, you need to understand what a theory is, and how to apply it to the practices you implement. Abend (2008) asks three questions regarding the meaning of theory: What is theory? What is a good theory? What is theory for (p. 174)? In defining these questions, which they identified as ontological, evaluative, and teleological questions, they also discovered the semantic predicament (SP), or how ought the word theory be used (p. 174)? To answer that, Abend defined the semantic question (SQ): What does “theory” mean? These questions demonstrate that the word “theory,” then, has multiple meanings. I will summary Abend’s definitions here:
Theory1. A system to relate two or more variables. These relations are general in nature.
Theory2. An explanation that uses factors and conditions to define a particular phenomenon (p. 178).
Theory3. This theory examines why a phenomenon happens. It is the discussion of reality (p. 178).
Theory4. The discussion of the meaning and interpretation of studies can be recursive, detailing how the thinking has changed over time (p. 179).
Theory5. This type of theory is a Weltanschauung, or a holistic view of looking at and interpreting the world. It looks at how the theorist looks at the event, rather than the event itself (p. 179).
Theory6. Looking at the etymology of the word, you will find it is translated as “to look at,” “to observe,” “to see”, or “to contemplate” (p. 180). This implies detachment and outside vision of the entity.
Theory7. Unlike theory4, this theory looks at specific “philosophical” problems facing the researchers, and a conceptual analysis (p. 181).
With the wide variety of definitions, it will be difficult to develop a single definition of “theory” that encompasses all aspects of the definitions provided. As Abend (2008) calls out, the answers may not be the problem, but instead, the question needs to be revised (p. 184). To answer the SP put forth above, Abend declares that a theory must be as general as possible, with as few conflicts between the way we know things (epistemology) and what things are (ontology) (p. 195). Clarence Leonard (Kelly) Johnson, former Corporate Senior Vice President of Lockheed Advanced Development Co., coined the phrase “Keep it simple, stupid—KISS—is our constant reminder” (Rich, 1995, p. 231).
Components of the Riviera Theory of Youth Development
For this theory to achieve maximum effectiveness, the details need to be focused towards the desired outcomes. The people involved with the theory—in implementation, execution, and assessment—need to look to the youth they are working with. Always keep in mind the purpose of what you are doing: to help the youth achieve a point of elevated development so they can better transition into their adult life and contribute to a greater society.
Youth must be your primary aim. Just as an archer looks down their arrow at the bullseye, youth development needs to focus on the direction the child needs to take. Your personal beliefs, faith, and perspectives need to be contained to allow the youth to discover their own way to relate to the world around them .
Parents do have the responsibility to pass morality and social standards to their children. The role of parents cannot be negated, and they are, in fact, the most important player in the youth development arena. The greatest and most consistent risk factors are commonly found within family: negative family structure, family conflict, and poor communication. These factors lead to increased depressive symptoms (Olson & Goddard, 2015, p. 226). The prepared world parents create for their children needs to allow for the youth to discover their own beliefs. Burt and Paysnick (2012) indicated that the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) found poor communities with adversity, and negative parental support, resulted in lower educational success and early entry into adulthood, including early pregnancy or high school dropout (p. 497 ). Insight to development processes by researchers and transition coordinators needs to be explained and disseminated to families and youth (Gorter, Stewart, & Woodbury-Smith, 2011).
One concept we have discussed through our Youth Development Leadership progress over the past year has been defining—or not defining—the age definition of youth. Arnett (2000) details how the median age of marriage has increased from 22 in 1979 to 26 in 1997 (p. 469). This new age range of development, which Arnett calls emerging adulthood, is distinct from childhood and from adulthood. Whereas childhood implies dependency, and adulthood defines independence, emerging adulthood provides a range of possible life in terms of love, work, and social investment. This is a time where these young adults may start to make cognitive decisions, but cultural norms limit the extent of which emerging adults can exercise that freedom. (Arnett, 2000).
Residency seems to be one of the most volatile aspects of emerging adults. While most adults leave home by age 18 or 19, they experience diverse and rapidly changing living quarters in the following years. College dorms, fraternity or sorority houses, apartments, or shared apartments are all options, and these young adults may change between them frequently . They experience semi-autonomy, taking on responsibilities of independent living, but relying on parents for more traditional needs (Arnett, 2000).
The tools and methods you will use to approach this youth development theory are your strategies. Trial-and-error, learning from mistakes, and educated guesses lead to discoveries that give youth a unique perspective of their world. The U.S. Census Bureau (2016) reports the world population to be 7,352,177,073 (and increasing rapidly; faster than I can type updates). With so many people, you have to accept that there will be a wide variety of aims, strategies, and outcomes desired by different cultures. Regional and faith-based beliefs will result in differing strategies. Whereas some cultures promote marriage at younger ages, leading to earlier transition to adulthood, Schlegel and Barry found that delayed development into adulthood was not a universal phenomenon, but is found where entry to adulthood is postponed, such as highly industrialized area where individuals need more advanced education (as cited in Arnett, 2000).
One of the initial strategies should help the youth learn that they are learning. In a paper for my Experiential Learning class, I wrote, “In this time of learning, I have learned to learn from the learner, and learn what the learner is learning.” Let me explain.
People are always taking in new information and developing new knowledge. That is the time of learning. As an adult, you have learned certain skills to better succeed in life. One of those skills is to continue learning at all times, and especially from those that are learning from you. Is that young learner learning what you are teaching, as you are expecting them to learn it? It is a play on words, of sorts, but it demonstrates how learning is a continuous cycle at all ages.
Instilling resilience demonstrates a stronger ability to succeed in the transition to adulthood. Family structure, relationships with peers, academic and adult support, and beneficial romantic partners, individually or in combination with factors like cognitive ability and self-control, produce youth with more resiliency (Burt & Paysnick, 2012).
Effective involvement of youth requires clear structures and good support. The setting must accommodate the perspective of the young people. Avoiding the imposition of “expert” opinions for the “best interests” of the youth, and rather enabling young people to decide helps avoid the conflict of adult-directed groups and addresses the real issues youth identify (Matthews, 2001).
Olson and Goddard (2015) talk about protective and promotive factors in community and school opportunities (p. 227). Strategies that encourage meaningful opportunities for youth in schools and communities, rewarding them for productive, prosocial participation, have been found to counteract negative influences and achieve positive outcomes (p. 237).
In a growing world with technological advances in global communication, youth are exposed to more risks and negative influences online. Slonje, Smith, and Frisén (2013) define bullying as “the intentional behavior to harm another… where it is difficult for the victim to defend themselves,” based on imbalanced power, and an abuse of power. Cyberbullying, then is this behavior exerted over electronic means (p. 26). Cyberbullying carries with it a variety of differences from traditional bullying, including anonymous or indirect attacks versus face-to-face insults, a lack of immediate response, more complex bystander roles, greater audience reach, and the ability to reach the victim in more locations (p. 28). While one can block another’s email address or other electronic identification, these blocks can be circumvented. A victim can also change their own identity online, but this new identity can be rediscovered. Disclosing the cyberbullying to a teacher or parent may help to address the root causes of the bullying, and confront the perpetrator. The latter is less common (p. 30 ). Strategies to address bullying can be modified and adapted to address cyberbullying, but there are additional considerations that need to be taken into account. Understanding the motives that stem from national or cultural differences need to be explored. It is important to help the bully to understand what they have done, especially in the context of cyberbullying (p. 30).
Merriam-Webster (2016) defines ethos as, “the guiding beliefs of a person, group, or organization.” As I indicated in my introduction, I learned strength and resilience in my transition from youth to adulthood. In a very emotional and poignant email to my parents recently (in the wake of the Presidential election results), I told them I was in the M.Ed. program because, “I don't want younger kids to end up like me.” I was bullied as a kid, then became a bully to one boy. I developed depression in high school and felt suicidal. I struggled with sexuality and relationships with others, and fell into high-risk behaviors later in college. Arnett (2000) identified some of the risk behaviors emerging adults encounter to include unprotected sex, substance use, and high speed or intoxicated driving (p. 475). Programs to help youth avoid these risks, and instead achieve positive outcomes have been moderately effective strategies. Addressing mental health issues and promoting positive development have taken precedence over prevention programs (Olson & Goddar, 2015).
Where did I go wrong? What didn’t work out for me so that I could complete high school as a successful, and happy, young man? I was ahead in academics (I attended math competitions at the college). I was cello section leader in orchestra, and a leader in technical theatre. Yet, I feel like my youth missed out on some significant development needs. I learned how to survive, and to overcome the challenges, so despite the depression and insufficient social skills, I did accomplish some success. This dilemma drives my interest to discover more about youth development. What can be done better? What should be done differently? Are there things that shouldn’t have happened?
Flower (1999) began, “When I was a boy, I did the things boys do” (p. 64). He discovered, as he slit a cocoon from tip-to-tip, that it was not a caterpillar inside, and it was not a butterfly. It was “mush.” This was his first experience of conscious incompetence. I explored Flower’s four phases of competence in my paper defining youth development. He did not know what he would find as he dissected the creature, and that is what he found. He alludes that we, too, are “in the mush” (p. 64).
The activities of youth development need to teach change, how to identify it, how to adapt, and how to control change (when you can). Flower (1999) explained how a company like IBM was able to catch on to new technology, like computers and servers, and avoiding becoming a memory like typewriters. All people are experiencing change, and your willingness, or defiance, to accept that change will affect your success as getting through the challenges presented. Burt and Paysnick (2012) talked about the Kauai Longitudinal Study, in which it was found that youth participants who were classified as “resilient” maintained that strength into adulthood. These same participants suffered more problems than those with less adversity (p. 495). They also shared how the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MSRA) promote organization approaches where effective management of challenges at younger ages can prepare youth for future success, even in at-risk youth (p. 497).
Afterschool activities are a growing influence on positive youth development (PYD). Smith (2007) declares agency, initiative, problem solving, and social relationship as being important components of PYD (p. 219). Effective afterschool activities with appropriate structure and curricula integration can achieve academic success and risk prevention (p. 219), but need to consider culture, race, and ethnicity, and their influences on youth concerns (p. 220).
One driving influence of the authority-youth relationship is communication. Adults are learning new technology (email, Skype, Internet), whereas “the net” is natural for younger people. The average starting age for Internet users is decreasing while the amount of time spend online is increasing. The global reach of the Internet provides benefits and risks. A world of wealthy information and learning opportunities are available, but risks of anonymous, unknown predators exist. To adapt to this changing world of communication, steps need to be taken to make the internet safer for youth, and younger people need to be taught how to protect themselves online (Amichai-Hamburger, 2013).
Novice is a term used to denote a beginner or unexperienced person. Daniel Levinson denoted the ages of 17–33 as the novice phase of development (as cited in Arnett, 2000). During this time, the young adult experiences change and instability while discovering the multitude of possibilities in work, family, and society. During this time, a person has the opportunity to explore identities in the areas of love, work, and worldviews. Adolescence has been the focus of identity formation research, but it seems identity achievement rarely happens before the end of high school, and development continues into the younger twenties (Arnett, 2000).
Encouraging citizenship is a fundamental action of bringing up one generation of children into the realm of leadership in government. Matthews (2001) defined citizenship as “the relationship between individuals and the stat e” (p. 299). The appropriateness of youth involvement in politics, doubting the capabilities of young people to participate, and uncertainties about how young people should participate are three factors that influence non-involvement (p. 300). While young people may be willing to give up time to work with adults representing groups that bring forth the youth voice, this willingness may not reflect the diversity of the larger community (p. 310).
As youth transition into adulthood, the effectiveness of their development becomes more apparent. The culmination of defining beliefs (ethos), strategies, and activities provided to a person will contribute to the developed young adult. How will the outcomes be measured? How do you define success, despite the failures that are inherent with growing up?
The value of youth involvement is evaluated by the outcomes produced. Genuine communication need to be heard, and feel that they are listened to and their opinions are seriously considered. When youth input is provided, they deserve appropriate feedback so they understand the decisions, and why or why not their desires were addressed (Matthews, 2001).
Ultimately, I think the primary factor to measure is the person’s own self-assessment of how they feel in the world they have matriculated into. Do they feel like a productive member of society? Do they feel respected, and are they recognized for their contributions to the community?
As a person transitions from adolescence to adulthood, they undergo a change in worldviews. Commonly, young adults will be exposed to education that opens their perception of the world, and they start to question the worldviews instilled in them by the world prepared by their parents and community, as defined in the introduction of this paper. Effective youth development will result in an adult who continues to be open to future changes in worldviews (Arnett, 2000).
No theory of any kind can apply and define effective means to accomplish effective development . Youth living in at-risk situations need special consideration to accommodate the specific needs and barriers presented. Youth aging out of foster care who lack on-going family support, chronic mental or physical illness, lower socioeconomic status, children of opiate-dependent parents, and youth who are mourning the loss of a parent face more challenges than their more fortunate peers (Burt & Paysnick, 2012).
Children with conditions that previously limited survival or development, such as chronic health conditions or disabilities, are now surviving longer because of advances in health care. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has concluded that a basic standard of care to support this increased survival has not yet been fully implemented (Gorter, Stewart, & Woodbury-Smith, 2011).
Youth who experience traumatic events may need to take a different course of development post-event. The loss of a parent through separation or death, serious illness, and other adverse life events can create deep depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that result in intrusive thoughts, images and memories later in life (Meiser-Stedman, Dalgleish, Yule, & Smith, 2012). Adolescents who experience depression will relate their adverse memories in a greater extent to their autobiographical identity than never-depressed youth (p. 72). Meiser-Stedman et al. (2012) found that intrusive ideas and memories are relatively common, and are not necessarily dependent on traumatic events. Fear, sadness, and anger are some of the emotions that influence intrusive memory frequency. They found that greater depressive symptoms would result in more frequent intrusive memories (p. 76). In a cyclical manner, ongoing memories of a negative event may perpetuate ongoing depression (p. 77).
Throughout the development of a youth, they will ultimately learn the phases of competence. I think one of the greatest measures of success is the competence in desired skills. In my definitions of youth development paper, I introduced the four phases of change-induced defined by Flower (1999): unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, and unconscious competence. At any one point, a well-developed individual will realize that there are skills and knowledge at each phase at all times. They will be aware of the change occurring around them, and they will have the ability to adapt successfully.
Achieving positive, appropriate life experiences throughout childhood and adolescence development, along with opportunities for inclusion and participation, prepare youth for adulthood. Advocacy for the youth, and creating the ability for effective self-advocacy, coordinated with person-environment interactions and improved care philosophies, will benefit children as they transition to adulthood (Gorter, Stewart, & Woodbury-Smith, 2011).
Abend, G. (2008). The meaning of ‘theory’. Sociological Theory, 26, 173–199. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9558.2008.00324.x
Amichai-Hamburger, Yair (2013). Youth internet and wellbeing. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.023
Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469
Burt, K. B., & Paysnick, A. A. (2012). Resilience in the transition to adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 493–505. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000119
Ethos. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ethos
Flower, J. (1999). In the mush. Physician Executive, 25(1), 64.
Gorter, J. W., Stewart, D., & Woodbury-Smith, M. (2011). Youth in transition: care, health and development. Child: Care, Health & Development, 37(6), 757-763. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01336.x
Matthews, H. (2001). Citizenship, youth councils and young people's participation. Journal of Youth Studies, 4(3), 299-318. doi:10.1080/13676260120075464
Meiser-Stedman, R., Dalgleish, T., Yule, W., & Smith, P. (2012). Intrusive memories and depression following recent non-traumatic negative life events in adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 137(1-3), 70-78. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.020
Olson, J., & Goddard, H. (2015). Applying prevention and positive youth development theory to predict depressive symptoms among young people. Youth & Society, 47(2), 222-244. doi:10.1177/0044118X12457689
Rich, B. R. (1995). Clarence Leonard (Kelly) Johnson. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir. Retrieved from http://www.nasonline.org/publications/biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/johnson-clarence.pdf
Slonje, R., Smith, P. K., & Frisén, A. (2013). The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 26-32. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.024
Smith, E. P. (2007). The role of afterschool settings in positive youth development. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 41(3), 219-20. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.06.010.
United States Census Bureau. (2016). U.S. and world population clock. Census.gov. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/popclock/
Definition of Youth Development
Written November 7, 2016 for YOST 5956 Organizational Approaches to Youth Development at the University of Minnesota, in pursuit of a Master of Education in Youth Development Leadership.
Instilling a process of learning and understanding is a fundamental function of youth development. Joe Flower said, “we cannot really know who we will be when we come out the other side.” He found four phases of change-induced learning (1999):
- Unconscious incompetence: you don’t know what you don’t know.
- Conscious incompetence: you know what you don’t know.
- Conscious competence: you know that you know.
- Unconscious competence: you know without knowing.
Now, this isn’t the first time I heard the of stages of competence. An old employer of mine demonstrated this concept with a matrix drawn on a whiteboard. When I first learned this, the order of the last two items was flipped. This was the rationale of competence:
- Unconscious incompetence: you don’t know what you don’t know.
- Conscious incompetence: you know what you don’t know.
- Unconscious competence: you don’t know that you know.
- Conscious competence: you know that you know.
This comparison is drastic in the interpretation of the concept. From the first list, you move into a point of automatic auctions. When riding a bike, you don’t need to think about pedaling, steering, and balancing; you just do it. However, would you want to respond automatically when shooting a firearm? No—you’d want to remain at level III: always aware of the shooting skill you are practicing.
In the case of the second list, you come to the realization that you are automatic in your actions, then become more cognizant of your decisions as you transition from level III to level IV.
Youth development, then, is the training of youth to understand and recognize these various levels of competence, and that skills and knowledge are always shifting within the scale. There is something at every level at all times; while you may be at level IV (on either list) with one subject, you may just be learning of a new skill that you weren’t aware of before (level II).
Flower, J. (1999, January-February). In the mush. (Next!). Physician Executive, 25(1), 64+. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10387273
Subject: The "Fed Kid"
I'm sure many of the employees in MSP FSDO have children that look up to their FAA parent and are in awe of the important work they do. I know I did.
My father retired from your office on December 29, 1999, after 34 years and 11 months as an FAA Avionics Safety Inspector. Originally from the FAR FSDO, he transferred to MSP for his final years in the Administration, and was the project manager for a software team developing the database used to track FAA inspections of maintenance facilities.
His name is W.F.E. I can't imagine there are many in that office after 18 years who remember him. He's still putzing around in Litchfield, MN, enjoying his retirement.
There are times I wish I could follow "in the family business." I grew up as a young child at FAR, in the old terminal, often running down the hall to the NWS (which has since moved to FGF). Fortunately, I've found a niche as a board member for Metro Skywarn, the amateur radio spotters that report severe weather to MPX. It's not quite aviation, it's not quite MSP, but I know the importance it has in the bigger picture in the sky. I do have a good friend who is an ATC in ABQ. He has two adopted sons, and I always encourage him that his sons have quite the impressive father.
One reason I cannot pursue an FAA job is my disabilities. They are far too severe to request reasonable accommodations in a federal office; yet the Social Security Administration does not qualify me for disability benefits.
However, I do finish up my Master of Education in Youth Development Leadership this fall at the U of MN. I have a Bachelor of Science in Theatre, Communication, and Youth Studies. I am well educated, and as you can probably tell, have a great passion for aviation and weather.
I am self-employed, and work mostly with nonprofits in climate and environmental education causes. I would love to develop a community outreach relationship with the FAA office, either FSDO, or the team on the first floor. After all, I am a Fed Kid, and the airport was my second playground.
I am nearing completion of a Master of Education, but I am not pursuing teaching licensure. I can't claim Teach for America or other popular civil service channels to pay off my 6-digit federal student loan debt.
I would beg for assistance to work for a federal agency such as the FAA. Unfortunately, my disability/exceptional qualification is not recognized on federal job applications: my father worked for the FAA for 34 years and 11 months. I won't say 35 years because former FAA Administrator Jane Garvey signed his Certificate of Service which states 34 years and 11 months. He retired on 29 December 1999. He avoided the dreaded Y2K bug (which was well prepared for and resulted in no incidents). And he was not present for a dramatic September day less than two years later.
But I grew up at the airport. Calls from North Dakota Sheriffs about a fatal crop duster, or calls of drunk pilots at the Speakeasy in Moorhead, were not uncommon to me. But even with my forthcoming Master of Education, I have no means or method to work in civil service and work off my federal student debt.
Al. Theatre in the Round, where your parents spent hours in the basement green room decades ago, has alienated me. My Bachelor of Science in Theatre, Communication, and Youth Studies is all but useless. I can't do theatre. My disability grows worse; so much so, I am preparing to consider re-applying for SSA disability benefits; I had been previously denied after many appeals.
My future is bleak. No jobs. No more education (after studying at the U of MN for 23 years AS A STUDENT). Lessening abilities due to worsening mental illness.
I'm sure the office assistant that reads your email will file this under a recording method, and prepare a canned response that addresses your legislative work on education or employment. I don't want to hear it.
Tell me how to work with the FAA, providing community education about airplane safety. In 1964, my father married an x-ray technician from central Minnesota. When aviation marries x-rays, you get airport security. And then I was born.
Help me expand on my community service in a way so I CAN PAY MY RENT, MY BILLS, AND FEED MY CATS. Help me pay of the $138,000 debt I owe my neighbors in Ford Federal Loans.
Help me stop scraping the bottom of the barrel, and find MY PLACE in this society that has done nothing but turn everyone away from each other.
From my perspective—the view of a Fed Kid—America is a disaster. There is little hope left.
Spirituality usually assumes a religious identity. You are Christian or Buddhist, Lutheran or Catholic, Israeli or Muslim. Your faith is defined by a spiritual community into which you were born and raised. Yet, your faith is independent of the religion. There are many levels of spirituality, and to find the truth, one must look at the crossroads of faith, religion, community, and education.
What you believe is up to you and you alone. It is not a matter of what you are taught or how you are raised. Those do influence your moral and ethical choices, but in the end, the difference between right and wrong comes down to your interpretation of all you have encountered in your life. If your religion teaches a particular stance on a topic, but your interpretation of life and people tells you differently, is that religion truly your faith?
To me, organized religion has become a farce. It is a show (the priest at a mass). A scripted rendition of a make-believe story. Perhaps as I have read and learned and explored the world, I discovered that multiple religions claim authority on a selected set of beliefs. I saw how religion was regional: communities of common people telling stories with common backgrounds. Asian religions differ from middle eastern religions. Nordic mythology differs from the Roman Catholic doctrine. Introduce a melting pot called America, and it becomes a clusterfuck.
Now, as I indicated before, religion has become a show; a production of sorts. I use this reference because of my background in theatre. In fact, it was probably theatre that killed my belief in religion. As a Catholic school boy, I was an altar boy. I participated in the show. I rang the bell during the preparation of the Eucharist, and I carried the candle to create the sacred space. It was not, by far, a spiritual experience for me. It was a job.
These old world religions (Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism) are based on ancient texted. Yet, there are more ancient texts available: Roman, Greek, and Egyptian stories. Where are those religions? I do not know. What I do know is that in 1954, L. Ron Hubbard opened the first Church of Scientology in Los Angeles. A man wrote a novel, and a religion was born. Is that such a far-fetched idea? The Bible was written (By whom? Many people?) and multiple religions use its text. Laozi wrote the Tao Te Ching six centuries before the reported life of Jesus Christ.
Well, in 1977, a man named George Lucas released a film called Star Wars (Episode IV: A New Hope). It introduced a concept called The Force that has become known as the foundation of the Jedi Order. In later films (the prequel sequels (Episodes I-III), background into the Jedi Order included details about midichlorians, microscopic beings that are found within all living beings. This contradicts The Force as it is described in Episode IV: The Force is what gives a Jedi his power. It is an energy field created by all living things. It surrounds us, and penetrates us. It binds the galaxy together. This discord, in film production terms, is called a continuity error.
Why does this matter? Well, L. Ron Hubbard wrote a novel which led to Scientology as an established religion. Is it so difficult, then, to accept the Jedi Order as a religion after years of movies and novels and video games and cartoons about the Star Wars universe? This revolution of faith has already begun. Meet The Temple of the Jedi Order, a 501c3 nonprofit organization in Texas that introduces themselves as such on their Website:
We are a Jedi church and international ministry of the religion Jediism and the Jedi way of life. Jedi at this site are not the same as those portrayed within the Star Wars franchise. Star Wars Jedi are fictional characters that exist within a literary and cinematic universe. We are a recognized International Ministry and Public Charity; a tax exempt (donations are US income tax deductable) 501(c)3 non-profit organization.
Now, there could be a claim that the Temple of the Jedi Order infringed on the intellectual property of the Star Wars franchise by using the term “Jedi.” That is an entirely different matter. The fact remains, however, that The Force, the Jedi Order, the Dark Side, and all that the Star Wars franchise has put together has taught a generation and a half about a new way to think and interpret the world. There is no proof that ancient relics and religious texts are true stories, so again I ask, can a fictional story have such an impact insomuch as to spawn a common belief system?
Theatre and film use pathos, ethos, and logos to touch emotional points within the audience, inspire ethical conversations, and persuade a particular viewpoint. If you attend a play or film and leave without a changed perception of life, you failed as an audience member. I often find myself guilty of this, however; having a background in production (Catholic mass, stage tech, audio/video/film production), I see through the story and evaluate the production value of the story presentation. Having worked as a stage manager, I have also been around actors as they move from themselves, into character space, and back again. Heck—I have even read Stanislavski as an assignment for my cello professor. Stanislavski’s “system” was developed by Lee Strasberg into a technique known as “Method acting” used by the likes of Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, and Robin Williams. In the Method, an actor utilizes their own life experiences and emotions to bring a character to life.
Religion teaches life lessons, morals, and ethics from one generation to the text. Stories are told, and traditions are kept. Film and theatre can do the same, through literature and artistic expression, to touch the hearts, minds, and souls of the audience. To be fair and legitimate, a person with closely-held religious beliefs that wants to be respected and allowed to practice their faith must, in turn, allow every individual they encounter to explore and discover their own spiritual path. I went through this struggle when my parents realized I no longer followed the Catholic way. When I ordered a sausage pizza one Friday during Lent, my father called me a heathen.
heathen. n. One who holds a religious belief which is neither Christian, Jewish, nor Muslim; a pagan. ("heathen, adj. and n.1." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2016. Web. 13 February 2017.)
Damn right. I am a Pagan. Not Wiccan, per se. Wicca is a subset of Paganism, just as Catholicism is a subset of Christianity. I believe the earth, its people and all living things, are interconnected with an energy we are not capable of truly understanding. I connect most with ancient Egyptian philosophies. I have gone so far as to tattoo the Eye of Horus on my arm with an ankh in the center of the eye. In much the same way, the Jedi Order believes there is a powerful Force that flows through us all. This is such a powerful correlation that I have chosen to list my religion on my Facebook profile as “Jedi”. Because I can. Because I believe.
9/11 is a day that touched every American. Many unfortunate families were directly affected when they lost loved ones in the attacks.
This note may be sensitive to some readers.
This is an excerpt from a paper I wrote for my Experiential Learning class for my Master of Education in Youth Development Leadership.
On September 11, 2001, the world experienced the collision of theoretical parallel universes. The FBI says hijackers who had studied how to fly jets in flight school in just a few months managed to steer planes with perfect accuracy into three buildings, killing 2,996 people. Being my father’s son, I know where there are rooms at airports with warning signs on the door, “Flight Control Equipment: Disrupting Equipment in this Room May Result in Death.” I knew where the door to my father’s Federal Aviation Administration office networking/phone closet was. As a child, I sat on a computer, steering a triangle around a green monotone monitor as my father worked in the office on weekends. I played with the industrial paper shredder used by federal offices. I had a job that gave me tarmac access without an airport badge or going through TSA checks. I knew that GPS receivers could be manipulated, and that some airplanes flew by Fly-by-Wire. I remember the Controlled Impact Demonstration of 1984. I figured out that planes can be remote controlled. I know that VORs exist. I know that Raytheon was one defense contractor that helped develop a system called JPALS that enables planes to land automatically with extreme accuracy. Raytheon had an office on the 91st floor of 2 World Trade Center, just floors above where United Airlines Flight 175 impacted.
Define a virtual flight path inside the memory of a computer. Now, make a plane fly that path, regardless of what the pilot does in the cockpit.
I’m not here to promote a conspiracy theory. I’m just demonstrating that reasonable doubt is defined by the eye of the beholder. Many, many Americans doubt the validity of the FBI’s decisions on Hillary Clinton’s email server investigation. Just as many Americans doubt the integrity of the countless Benghazi hearings that resulted in no action against Hillary.
Why, then, is it so hard to believe that I have a reasonable doubt as to the FBI findings of 9/11.
As I told my Senior Academic Adviser, one of the few redeeming pieces of evidence regarding 9/11 is the United Airlines 93 cockpit voice recorder (commonly called a Black Box). Never before in the history of American aviation has a person outside the FAA/NTSB investigation team heard the recordings on a black box... until the families of those aboard UA93 were given one opportunity to hear their loved ones fight back. No recording devices. Nothing to write notes on. Discreet headphones in a protected room was their one chance to hear their family members say goodbye.
Image: Gangs of New York, Miramax Films, 2002
I am weak, but not afraid.
You have gone where I have not.
Silence stands where you once screamed,
We hear you, still, through the void.
Your pain has ended, and mine with fade with time.
You will never be the same.
I will forever be touched by your words,
Leading me through the foggy way.
One more light has gone out,
And I do care.
You have shined in the light of a thousand suns,
And stand, numb, in the shadow of death.
I am the Phoenix, rising from the ashes of those who have gone before me.
The Obama Presidential Library is not just for Chicago. Or Illinois. Or the United States. Tourism to Chicago will change drastically as scholars and those wishing to honour Obama's legacy visit your city. I've been to Chicago (from Minneapolis) three times.
I wish I could visit more, I love Lincoln Zoo.
The Obama Presidential Library may very well be one of my next destinations; that's how little I travel. There will be up-front costs for roads and transit, signage, staff, and neighborhood improvements; and people will object on political grounds, but this project is for the entire world. Twenty-eight sister cities are getting this library, too. Find international corporate sponsors to support travel costs for youth student exchange programs to study at the Obama Library. This library is going to change the face of Chicago.